Τετάρτη, 25 Ιουνίου 2014

ΕΝΑ ΑΡΘΡΟ ΤΟΥ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΗ ΜΠΑΛΤΑ ΓΙΑ ΤΟΝ ΣΕΡΓΙΟ ΜΠΟΥΛΓΚΑΚΩΦ (Ελληνικά, Αγγλικά, Ρουμανικά)


Με αφορμή την επέτειο των 70 χρόνων από τον θάνατο του μεγάλου ρώσου διανοητή Σέργιου Μπουλγκάκωφ, διοργανώνεται στο Παρίσι το διήμερο 27-28 Ιουνίου 2014 συνέδριο, με θέμα: "Σέργιος Μπουλγκάκωφ, ένας πατέρας της σύγχρονης Εκκλησίας". 
Το πλήρες πρόγραμμα του συνεδρίου μπορείτε να δείτε εδώ.
Η Ιδιωτική Οδός, με αφορμή ακριβώς αυτή την επέτειο, δημοσιεύει ένα άρθρο του Δρ. Φιλοσοφίας Δημήτρη Μπαλτά για τον Σ. Μπουλγκάκωφ, σε τρεις γλώσσες (ελληνικά, αγγλικά, ρουμανικά).

Δημήτρης Μπαλτᾶς 
Σέργιος Μπουλγκάκωφ 
(1871-1944) 
Ἑβδομήντα ἔτη ἀπό τόν θάνατό του 
Τό παρόν ἀποτελεῖ μία σύντομη ἀναφορά στήν ζωή καί τό ἔργο τοῦ Σεργίου Μπουλγκάκωφ, μέ ἀφορμή τήν συμπλήρωση ἑβδομήντα ἐτῶν ἀπό τόν θάνατό του. 
Ὁ Σέργιος Μπουλγκάκωφ γεννήθηκε στίς 16 Ἰουλίου τοῦ 1871 στήν πόλη Λίβνυ, νότια τῆς Μόσχας. Ἄν καί μεγάλωσε μέσα σέ θρησκευτική ἀτμόσφαιρα, στήν ἀρχή τῆς πνευματικῆς του πορείας ἀσπάσθηκε τόν μαρξισμό, καί μάλιστα ὑπό τήν ἐκδοχή τοῦ λεγομένου «νομίμου μαρξισμοῦ». 
Τό πρῶτο δημοσίευμα τοῦ Μπουλγκάκωφ ἐπιγράφεται «Ὁ ρόλος τῆς ἀγορᾶς στό καπιταλιστικό σύστημα παραγωγῆς» (1897). Στήν συζήτηση γιά τήν δυνατότητα τῆς ἀναπτύξεως τοῦ καπιταλισμοῦ στήν Ρωσσία ὡς σταδίου μεταβάσεως στήν σοσιαλιστική οἰκονομία, ὁ Μπουλγκάκωφ δέχεται τήν ἀναγκαιότητα τῆς καπιταλιστικῆς ἐξελίξεως, κυρίως στό ζήτημα τῆς ἀγροτικῆς παραγωγῆς. Ὡστόσο, αὐτή ἡ τοποθέτηση ἔρχεται σέ ἀντίθεση μέ τίς ἀπόψεις τόσο τῶν narodniki (= λαϊκιστῶν), ὅσο καί τῶν συνεπῶν μαρξιστῶν. Τό βασικό ἔργο αὐτῆς τῆς περιόδου εἶναι τό δίτομο «Καπιταλισμός καί γεωργία» (Ἁγία Πετρούπολη 1900). Ἐπισημαίνεται σχετικά ὅτι ἡ προσπάθεια (ἐνν. τοῦ Μπουλγκάκωφ) νά ἑρμηνεύσει τά προβλήματα τῆς γεωργίας σύμφωνα μέ τίς μαρξιστικές κατηγορίες ἔδειξε σ' αὐτόν τούς περιορισμούς τῆς θεωρίας (ἐνν. τοῦ Μάρξ) καί τό ἀνεφάρμοστο αὐτῆς σ’ αὐτόν τόν ἰδιαίτερο τομέα τῆς οἰκονομίας. Αὐτή ἦταν μία ἐκ τῶν «ἔσω» κριτική τοῦ μαρξισμοῦ (L. Zander, ‘’Memoir’’, στόν τόμο Sergius Boulgakov. A Bulgakov anthology, ed. J. Pain-N. Zernov, Philadelphia, 1976, σ. xxi). 
Ἀκολουθεῖ ἡ δεύτερη φάση τῆς πορείας τοῦ Μπουλγκάκωφ, ἡ ὁποία θά πρέπει νά τοποθετηθεῖ χρονικά μεταξύ τῶν ἐτῶν 1905-1917. Ὁ Μπουλγκάκωφ εἶναι τώρα Καθηγητής τῆς Πολιτικῆς Οἰκονομίας στό Πανεπιστήμιο τοῦ Κιέβου καί στό Πανεπιστήμιο τῆς Μόσχας. Ὁρόσημο αὐτῆς τῆς ἐποχῆς εἶναι ἡ ἐπανάσταση τοῦ 1905 οἱ ἰδεολογικές ρίζες τῆς ὁποίας βρίσκονται, ὥς ἕνα βαθμό, στίς θεωρήσεις τῶν «νομίμων μαρξιστῶν». Ἀκριβῶς σ’ αὐτήν τήν περίοδο ὁ Μπουλγκάκωφ, ὑπό τήν ἐπίδραση τοῦ γερμανικοῦ ἰδεαλισμοῦ, θά ἀπορρίψει τήν ἀνθρωπολογική καί τήν κοινωνική ἔκφραση τῆς μαρξικῆς κοσμοθεωρίας. Ἔτσι ὁ Ρῶσσος συγγραφέας ἀντιτίθεται στήν θεώρηση τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ὡς οἰκονομικῆς μονάδας καί στήν ταύτιση τῆς ψυχολογίας τοῦ ἀτόμου μέ τήν ψυχολογία τῆς τάξεως. Ἕνα ἀπό τά πρῶτα βασικά κείμενα αὐτῆς τῆς περιόδου, δημοσιευμένο κατά τό 1906, ἐπιγράφεται «Ὁ Kάρλ Mάρξ ὡς θρησκευτικός τύπος» (ἑλλ. μετ. Δ. Μπαλτᾶς, Ἐκδόσεις Ἄθως, Ἀθήνα 2004). Ἀπό τά ἔργα αὐτῆς τῆς περιόδου θά ἀναφερθοῦν ἡ δίτομη συλλογή ἄρθρων ὑπό τήν ἐπιγραφή «Ἀπό τόν μαρξισμό στόν Ἰδεαλισμό» (Ἁγία Πετρούπολη 1903), ἡ ἐπίσης δίτομη συλλογή ἄρθρων «Δύο Πόλεις. Μελέτη περί τῆς φύσεως τῶν κοινωνικῶν Ἰδανικῶν» (Μόσχα 1911), ἡ περίφημη διατριβή ὑπό τήν ἐπιγραφή «Φιλοσοφία τῆς οἰκονομίας» (Μόσχα 1912) καί τό ὀγκῶδες «Φῶς Ἀνέσπερον» (Μόσχα 1917), τό ὁποῖο εἶναι μία ἀξιόλογη συμβολή στήν θρησκευτική φιλοσοφία. Στήν ἴδια, τέλος, ἐποχή ἀνήκει ὁ τόμος «Ἥσυχες σκέψεις» (Μόσχα 1918), πού περιλαμβάνει ἄρθρα τῶν ἐτῶν 1911-1915 (Ἕνα ἀπό τά ἄρθρα αὐτά εἶχα περιλάβει μεταφρασμένο στον τόμο Ρῶσσοι φιλόσοφοι. 19ος-20ός αἰ., Ἐκδόσεις Σαβάλλας, Ἀθήνα 2002, σσ. 54-67). 
Ἡ τελευταία φάση τῆς πνευματικῆς ἐξελίξεως τοῦ Μπουλγκάκωφ ἀρχίζει μετά τήν Ρωσσική Ἐπανάσταση τοῦ 1917 καί ὁλοκληρώνεται στά τέλη τῆς ζωῆς του. Ἄν καί ὁ Μπουλγκάκωφ δέν ἐρευνᾶ ἰδιαίτερα τόν χαρακτήρα τῆς Ἐπαναστάσεως τοῦ 1917, στόν βαθμό πού ἀσχολεῖται λ.χ. ὁ Ν. Μπερντιάγιεφ (1874-1948), ἔχει συντελεσθεῖ μία βαθειά ἀλλαγή στήν ζωή καί στήν σκέψη του, πρᾶγμα πού φαίνεται καί ἀπό τήν εἴσοδό του στήν ἱερωσύνη.


Εἶναι γνωστό ὅτι χειροτονήθηκε ἱερέας τῆς Ὀρθόδοξης Ἐκκλησίας τόν Ἰούνιο τοῦ 1918 στήν Λαύρα τοῦ Ἁγ. Σεργίου παρουσίᾳ ἐκλεκτῶν φίλων, ὅπως τοῦ Π. Φλωρένσκυ (1882-1938), Ν. Μπερντιάγιεφ κ.ἄ. Ὡστόσο, τό γεγονός αὐτό δέν σημαίνει ἀπολύτως τήν μετάβαση ἀπό τήν φιλοσοφία στήν θεολογία. Εἶναι ὀρθότερο, νομίζω, νά ὑποστηριχθεῖ ὅτι ὁ Μπουλγκάκωφ εἶναι συνάμα φιλόσοφος πού θεολογεῖ καί θεολόγος πού φιλοσοφεῖ. Μάλιστα προκαλεῖ ἐντύπωση ὁ ἐνθουσιασμός τοῦ Μπουλγκάκωφ τόσο κατά τήν περίοδο ὅπου ἦταν μαρξιστής, ὅσο καί κατά τήν περίοδο πού ἐπανῆλθε στήν Ὀρθόδοξη Ἐκκλησία. Στήν συνέχεια μετέβη στό Πανεπιστήμιο τῆς Συμφερουπόλεως στήν Κριμαία μέχρι τήν 1η Ἰανουαρίου τοῦ 1923 ὁπότε καί ἐξορίστηκε. Τότε, καί συγκεκριμένα στήν Γιάλτα, κατά τό 1922, συνέθεσε τό ἔργο «Ὑπό τίς ἐπάλξεις τῆς Χερσονήσου», τό ὁποῖο ἐκδόθηκε σέ γαλλική μετάφραση τό 1999. 
Ἀπό τό 1925 μέχρι τό 1944 ὁ Ρῶσσος διανοητής διδάσκει ὀρθόδοξη δογματική στό Institut de Theologie Orthodoxe Saint-Serge στό Παρίσι. Ἀναφέρεται ὅτι ὅταν ἔφθασεν εἰς τόν Ἅγιον Σέργιον «ἦτο περισσότερο γνωστός ὡς ὁ μαρξιστής οἰκονομολόγος παρά ὡς ὁ νεωστί μεταστραφείς καί χειροτονηθείς. Διό ὑπῆρχε πολλή ἀντίδρασις διά τόν διορισμόν του εἰς τό Ἰνστιτοῦτον, παρά τό ὅτι oἱ πλεῖστοι τῶν ὑποστηρικτῶν του ἦσαν σφοδροί ἀντικομμουνισταί Ρῶσοι μετανάσται» (Θ. Σταύρου, «Σεργκέϊ Μπουλγκάκωφ», ΘΗΕ τ. 9, 187). Βεβαίως, ἀργότερα, ὁ Μπουλγκάκωφ ἦταν ἡ μορφή πού ἐνέπνεε σεβασμό καί κυριαρχοῦσε γιά πολλά χρόνια στόν Ἅγιο Σέργιο. Στήν τρίτη αυτή φάση τῆς πνευματικῆς πορείας του ὁ Μπουλγκάκωφ ἐκδίδει δύο τριλογίες δογματικοῦ περιεχομένου: α. «Ἡ φλεγόμενη βάτος» (Παρίσι 1927, ρωσσ.), «Ὁ φίλος τοῦ Νυμφίου» (Παρίσι 1927, ρωσσ.), «Ἡ κλῖμαξ τοῦ Ἰακώβ» (Παρίσι 1929, ρωσσ.) καί β'. «Ὁ Παράκλητος (Παρίσι 1936, ρωσσ.), «Περί τοῦ ἐνσαρκωθέντος Λόγου» (Παρίσι 1943, γαλλ.), «Ἡ Νύμφη τοῦ Ἀρνίου (Παρίσι 1945, ρωσσ.). Ἐπίσης στήν ἴδια ἐποχή ἀνήκει τό εὐσύνοπτο «Ἡ Ὀρθοδοξία» (Παρίσι 1932). Ἐκτός αὐτῶν, ἰδιαίτερο φιλοσοφικό ἐνδιαφέρον παρουσιάζουν τά ἔργα «Die Tragodie der Philosophie» (Ντάρμσταντ 1927, μόνον γερμ.), τό ὁποῖο ἀναφέρεται στήν διαλεκτική τῆς γερμανικῆς φιλοσοφίας τοῦ ιθ' αἰ., «The Wisdom of God. A brief summary of sophiology» (Λονδίνο 1937), ὅπου ἀναφέρεται ἀκροθιγῶς ὁ Μπουλγκάκωφ στήν σοφιολογική θεωρία του, καί, τέλος, «Ἡ Φιλοσοφία τοῦ ὀνόματος» (Ἐκδόσεις L' Age d'Homme, Λωζάννη 1991, γαλλ.) πού ἀποτελεῖ μία σημαντική συμβολή τοῦ Μπουλγκάκωφ στήν φιλοσοφία τῆς γλώσσας. 
Γιά τήν ἱστορία, ἄς σημειωθεῖ ὅτι ὁ Μπουλγκάκωφ ἦλθε καί στήν Ἑλλάδα κατά τό 1936, ὅταν ἔλαβε μέρος στό Πανορθόδοξο Συνέδριο Θεολόγων στήν Ἀθήνα. 
Τρία χρόνια ἀργότερα, ὁ π. Σέργιος προσβλήθηκε «ἀπό καρκίνο τοῦ λάρυγγος, μετά ὅμως ἀπό δύο ἐγχειρήσεις διέφυγε τόν κίνδυνο, ἀλλά ἔχασε τή φωνή του καί ἐπέζησε μέχρι τίς 12 Ιουνίου 1944» (Ἠ. Μαστρογιαννόπουλος, Θεολογικές παρουσίες, Ἀθήνα 1986, σ. 57).


Dimitris Baltas 
Sergei Bulgakov (1871-1944) 
Seventy years since his death 
The present article constitutes a brief reference to the life and work of Sergei Bulgakov, on attaining seventy years since his death. 
Sergei Bulgakov was born on 16 July 1871 in the town of Livny, south of Moscow. Although he was raised in a religious ambience, he, in the beginning of his spiritual course, espoused Marxism and more so under the form of the so called ‘Legal Marxism’movement. 
Bulgakov’s first publication is entitled “The Significance of the Market in the Capitalist Production System” (1897). Discussing the possibility of the development of capitalism in Russia as a transition stage towards a socialist economy, Bulgakov accepts the necessity of the capitalist evolution, mainly on the issue of agricultural production. However, this stance contradicts the views of both the narodniki (=populists) as well as those of the consistent Marxists. The main work of this era is the two-volume Capitalism and Agriculture (St Petersburg, 1900). It is hereby noted that his effort to interpret the problems of agriculture according to the Marxism categories, made him realize the limitations of the Marxist theory and its inapplicability to this special sector of the economy. This was a ‘from the inside’ criticism of Marxism (L. Zander, “Memoir”, in vol. Sergius Boulgakov, A Bulgakov anthology, ed. J. Pain-N. Zernov, Philadelphia, 1976, p. xxi). 
Then we come to the second phase of Bulgakov’s course, which, chronologically speaking, should be placed, between 1905 and 1917. Bulgakov is now a Professor of Political Economy in the University of Kiev and in the University of Moscow. The Revolution of 1905 constitutes an important landmark of the era as its ideological roots lie, up to a certain degree, on the notions of the ‘Legal Marxists’. It is at this exact period that Bulgakov, under the influence of the German idealism, rejects the anthropological and the social expression of the Marxist world view. Hence, the Russian author contradicts the notion of the individual as an economic unit and the identification of the individual’s psychology to the psychology of the class. One of the first main texts of this period, published in 1906, is entitled Karl Marx as a Religious Type (D. Baltas, trans. in Greek, Athos, Athens 2004). Some of the works of this era that need to be mentioned are the two-volume article collection entitled‘From Marxism to Idealism’ (St Peterburg, 1903), the also two-volume article collection‘Two cities. Investigations into the nature of social ideals’ (Moscow, 1911), the celebrated thesis under the title The Philosophy of Economy: The World as Household (Moscow, 1912) and the massive The Unfading Light: contemplations and speculations (Moscow, 1917), which is a notable contribution to religious philosophy. Finally, the volume ‘Quiet Thoughts’, which includes articles dated between 1911 and 1915, can be traced in the same era. (One of these articles, having been translated, is included in my volume Russian Philosophers, 19th -20th century, Savalas ed., Athens 2002, pp. 54-67, in greek).
The last phase of Bulgakov’s spiritual development begins after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and is completed at the end of his life. Although Bulgakov does not especially investigate the nature of the Revolution of 1917, not in the sense that N. Berdyaev (1874-1948) does for example, a profound change in his life and thought has taken place, which is also reflected in his decision to enter priesthood. It is known that he was ordained an Orthodox Church priest in June 1918 in the Trinity Lavra of St Sergius, in the presence of a few distinguished friends, such as P. Florensky, N. Berdyaev et al. However, this fact does not necessarily mean a transition from philosophy to theology. It is more accurate, I believe, to maintain that Bulgakov is both a philosopher who theologizes and a theologian who philosophizes as well. Indeed, what creates an impression is Bulgakov’s enthusiasm during the era when he was a Marxist as well as when he returned to the Orthodox Church. Then he went to the University of Simferopol in Crimea until 1st January 1923, when he was exiled. It was then, in Yalta in 1922, that he wrote Sous les remparts de Chersonese published in French in 1999. 
From 1925 until 1944, the Russian thinker teaches the orthodox doctrine at the Institut de Theologie Orthodoxe Saint-Serge in Paris. It is mentioned that when he arrived at St Sergius “…he was known as the Marxist economist rather than the newly converted and ordained. That is why there was a lot of reaction against his appointment at the Institute, although most of his supporters were strongly anticommunist Russian immigrants” (Θ. Σταύρου, «Σεργκέϊ Μπολυλγκάκωφ», Θρηκσευτική καί Ἠθική Ἐγκυκλοπαίδεια, τ. 9, 187). Of course, later on, Bulgakov was a respectful figure who dominated St Sergius for many years. In this – the third – phase of his spiritual development, Bulgakov publishes two trilogies of doctrinal content: a. ‘The Burning Bush: On the Orthodox Veneration of the Mother of God’. (Paris, 1927, in Russian), ‘The Friend of the Bridegroom: On the Orthodox Veneration of the Forerunner’, (Paris, 1927), ‘Jacob’s ladder: on angels’ (Paris, 1929) and b. ‘Le Paraclet (Paris, 1936), The Incarnate Word (Paris, 1943), ‘The Bride of the Lamb’ (Paris, 1945). Also another work of this era is the concise work ‘L’orthodoxie’ (Paris, 1932). Apart from these, the following works are of a special philosophical interest: Die Tragodie der Philosophie (Darmstadt, 1927), which refers to the dialectics of the 19th century German philosophy, The Wisdom of God. A brief summary of sophiology (London, 1937), in which Bulgakov briefly alludes to his sophiological theory, and finally Philosophy of the Name, (L’Age d’Homme, Lozanne, 1991) which constitutes Bulgakov’s important contribution to language philosophy. 
For the record, it should be mentioned that Bulgakov also visited Greece in 1936 when he participated in a Pan Orthodox Congress in Athens. Three years later, father Sergei was stricken “by cancer of the larynx, but after two surgeries he escaped the danger; he lost his voice though and survived until 12thJune 1944” (Η. Mastrogiannopoulos, Θεολογικές Παρουσίες, Athens, 1986, p. 57).


Serghei Bulgakov (1971-1944) 
Serghei Bulgakov s-a născut în anul 1871 în orașul Livny, la sud de Moscova. Deși a crescut într-o atmosferă ortodoxă, la începutul drumului său spiritual a îmbrățișat marxismul. Prima scriere a lui Bulgakov are următorul titlu: «Rolul pieței în sistemul capitalist de producție» (1897). Referindu-se la posibilitatea dezvoltării capitalismului în Rusia, ca stadiu de trecere la economia socialistă, Bulgakov acceptă necesitatea evoluției capitaliste, mai ales în domeniul agrar. Totuși, opinia sa întră în contradicție atât cu poziția populiștilor (narodniki), cât și cu cea a marxiștilor. 
Lucrarea de căpătâi scrisă în această perioadă este «Capitalism și Agricultură» (Sankt Petersburg 1900). Încercarea sa eșuată de a interpreta chestiunea agrară prin prisma concepțiilor marxiste l-a făcut să-și dea seama de limitările teoriei marxiste și de faptul că aceasta nu poate fi aplicată în acest domeniu special al economiei. Odată realizat acest lucru, Bulgakov efectuează o critică ad intra a marxismului (L. Zander, «Memoir», în volumul Sergius Bulgakov. A Bulgakov anthology, ed. J. Pain-N. Zemov, Philadelphia 1976, p. xxi). 
Urmează a doua etapă a carierei spirituale a lui Bulgakov, care poate fi încadrată temporal între anii 1905-1917. Serghei este numit profesor de economie politică la Universitățile din Kiev și Moscova. Piatra de hotar a acestei perioade este reprezentată de Revoluția din 1905, ale cărei rădăcini ideologice trebuie căutate, până într-un anumit punct, în teoriile «marxiștilor legali». În acești ani, Bulgakov, vizibil influențat de idealismul german, respinge orice expresie antropologică sau socială a teoriei marxiste. Astfel, scriitorul rus nu este de acord cu concepția conform căreia omul este văzut ca o unitate economică, așa cum nu este de acord nici cu identificarea psihologiei individului cu psihologia clasei sociale din care face parte. 
Una dintre principalele lucrări scrise în această perioadă este «Karl Marx ca ins religios», publicată în anul 1906. De asemenea, putem aminti aici și următoarele opere: colecția de articole, în două volume, intitulată «De la Marxism la Idealism» (Sankt Petersburg 1903), colecția de articole «Două orașe. Studiu despre natura idealurilor sociale» (Moscova 1911), renumita dizertație «Filosofia economiei» (Moscova 1912), precum și lucrarea «Lumina neînserată» (Moscova 1917). Aceasta din urmă reprezintă o scriere uriașă nu numai ca dimensiuni, ci și prin prisma contribuției sale la dezvoltarea filosofiei religioase. Tot în aceeași perioadă, se încadrează și volumul «Gânduri liniștite» (Moscova 1918), care conține articole publicate între anii 1911-1915. 
Ultima etapă a carierei spirituale a lui Bulgakov începe după Revoluția Rusă din 1917 și se încheie odată cu viața acestuia. Deși nu este preocupat în mod deosebit cu studierea Revoluției bolșevice din 1917, așa cum a fost de pildă Nikolai Berdiaev (1874-1948), totuși nu poate fi ingorat faptul că aceasta a contribuit decisiv la schimbarea profundă a modului său de gândire. Apogeul acestei schimbări este reprezentat de hotărârea sa de a intra în tagma preoțească. 
Este cunoscut faptul că, în iunie 1918, a fost hirotonit preot al Bisericii Ortodoxe, în Lavra Sf. Serghie, în prezența unor prieteni distinși, precum Pavel Florensky şi Nikolai Berdiaev, ș.a. Totuși, acest eveniment nu înseamnă neapărat trecerea sa de la gândirea filosofică la cea teologică. Cred că mai corect ar fi să spunem că Bulgakov este un filosof care teologhisește și, în același timp, un teolog care filosofează. Ceea ce impresionează în cazul său este acel entuziasm înflăcărat care l-a însoțit pretutindenea și pe toată durata vieții sale, atât în perioada când a fost un filosof marxist, cât mai ales din momentul hirotonirii sale ca preot al Bisericii Ortodoxe. După hirotonire, a plecat în Crimeea, unde a fost profesor la Universitatea din Simferopol până pe 1 ianuarie 1923, când a fost exilat. În Crimeea a scris lucrarea «Sub ocrotirea Chersonului», apărută ulterior (1999) și în traducere franceză («Sous les remparts de Chersonèse»). 
Din 1925 și până în 1944, intelectualul rus a fost profesor de Dogmatică Ortodoxă la Institutul Saint Serge din Paris. Scriitorul T. Stávrou spune că, atunci când a ajuns la Institut, Bulgakov era cunoscut mai mult ca economist marxist decât ca teolog ortodox. De aceea mulți s-au împotrivit numirii sale ca profesor la acest institut, cu toate că cei mai mulți dintre susținătorii săi erau intelectuali ruși anticomuniști [«Serghei Bulgakov», în ΘΗΕ (Enciclopedie religioasă și morală), vol. IX, p. 187]. 
Desigur, mai târziu, Bulgakov a câștigat respectul tuturor, devenind una din cele mai reprezentative personalități ale Institutului. În această a trei etapă a vieții sale, teologul rus a scris două trilogii cu conținut dogmatic. Prima conține următoarele opere: «Rugul aprins» (Paris 1927), «Prietenul Mirelui» (Paris 1927) și «Scara lui Iacov» (Paris 1929), iar a doua: «Mângâietorul» (Paris 1936), «Despre Cuvântul întrupat» (Paris 1943) și «Mireasa Mielului» (Paris 1945). 
De asemenea, din aceeași perioadă datează și lucrarea «Ortodoxia» (Paris 1932). În afară de acestea, un interes deosebit prezintă și operele: «Die Tragodie der Philosophie» (Darmstadt 1927), lucrare care tratează dialectica filosofiei germane a secolului XIX, «The Wisdom of God. A brief summary of sophiology» (Londra 1937), care descrie pe scurt teoriile sale sofiologice, «Filosofia numelui» (ed. L’ Age d’ Homme, Lausanne 1991), un tratat remarcabil despre filosofia limbajului. 
Bulgakov a vizitat și Grecia în anul 1936, cu ocazia desfășurării Conferinței Panortodoxe a Teologilor (Atena 1936). Trei ani mai târziu, părintele Serghei s-a îmbolnăvit, fiind diagnosticat cu cancer la laringe. «Două intervenții chirurgicale efectuate cu succes l-au ajutat să scape de orice pericol. Și-a pierdut însă vocea. După aceea a mai trăit aproape cinci ani, dându-și ultima suflare pe 12 iunie 1944» [I. Mastrogiannópoulos, Θεολογικές παρουσίες (Prezențe teologice), Atena 1986, p. 57].

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